The biosynthesis and function of polysaccharide components of the plant cell wall.
Yokoyama, R., Shinohara, N., Asaoka, R., Narukawa, H., Nishitani, K.
In Plant Cell Wall Patterning and Cell Shape. Fukuda Ed., pp. 3-34, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
This chapter discusses the primary cell wall and the dynamic aspects of its major components, namely cellulose and matrix polysaccharides, in relation to its function. It describes the structural features of the cellulose microfibrils and two major matrix polysaccharides – pectin and hemicellulosel. The chapter then focuses on the general mechanisms of the synthesis of the two types of cell wall polysaccharides and how these polysaccharides are assembled into the dynamic architecture of the primary cell wall. It discusses the roles of XTH family enzymes and their specific substrates, xyloglucans, in determining cell shape in plants. Finally, the chapter focuses on pectin methylesterases (PMEs)-mediated modification of pectin and its biological significance in the determination of cell shape in plants.