Auxin-induced changes in the cell wall structure: Changes in the sugar compositions， intrinsic viscosity and molecular weight distributions of matrix polysaccharides of the epicotyl cell wall of Vigna angularis
Nishitani K, Masuda Y
Physiologia Plantarum 52: 482-494
Rapid effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on the mechanical properties of cell wall, and sugar compositions, intrinsic viscosity and molecular weight distribution of cell wall polysaccharides were investigated with excised epicotyl segments of Vigna angularis Ohwi et Ohashi cv. Takara.(1)IAA caused cell wall loosening as studied by stress-relaxation analysis within 15 min after the IAA application.(2)IAA stimulated the decrease in the content of arabinose and galactose in the hemicellulose 1 h after its application. The amounts of other component sugars in the cell wall polysaccharides remained constant during the IAA-induced segment growth.(3)The intrinsic viscocity of the pectin increased as early as 30 min after the IAA application. This effect was not prevented when elongation growth of the segment was osmotically suppressed by 0.15 M mannitol.(4)Gel permeation chromatography of the pectin on a Sepharose 4 B column demonstrated tht IAA caused increase in the mass-average molecular weight of the pectin. Analysis of the sugar compositions of the pectin eluted from the Sepharose 4 B column indicated that IAA increased the molecular weight of the polysaccharides composed of uronic acid, galactose, rhamnose and arabinose. This effect became apparent within 30 min after the IAA application. Furthermore, IAA increased the molecular weight of the pectin when elongation growth of the epicotyl segments was osmotically suppressed by 0.15 M mannitol.(5)Hemicellulose of the cell wall chromatographed on a Sepharose CL-4 B column. Analysis of the neutral sugar compositions and the iodine staining property (specific for xyloglucans) of the polysaccharide solution eluted from the column indicated that the hemicellulose consisted of xyloglucans, arabinogalactans and polysaccharides composed of xylose and/or mannose. IAA caused a decrease in the arabinogalactan content and depolymerization of xyloglucans. These IAA effects became apparent within 30 min after the IAA application. These changes occurred even when elongation growth of the epicotyl segments was osmotically suppressed by 0.15 M mannitol.Polymerization of the pectin, degradation of arabinogalactans and depolymerization of xyloglucans appear to be involved in the mechanism by which IAA induces cell wall loosening and therefore extension growth of cells.